Information Technology – Definition, Characteristics, and More
Information Technology Definition
Information technology is a process that uses a combination of means and methods of data collection, processing and transmission to obtain new quality information about the state of an object, technique or phenomenon. It aims to produce data for analysis by people and decision-making based on it to act.
The introduction of a personal computer in information and telecommunications communication media has marked a new stage in developing information technology. Modern IT is an information technology with a “friendly” user interface that uses personal computers and telecommunications facilities. The latest information technology is based on the following basic principles:
- Interactive (dialogue) way of working with a computer.
- Integration with other software products.
- Flexibility in the process of data change and task definitions.
As a set of information technology tools, many computer programs are used: word processors, publishing systems, spreadsheets, database management systems, electronic calendars, functional-purpose information systems.
Characteristics of Information Technology
- User operation in data manipulation mode (no programming). The user must not know and remember but must-see (output devices) and act (input devices).
- Transversal information support at all stages of information transmission supported by an integrated database, which provides a unique way to enter, search, display, update and protect information.
- Paperless document processing during which only the final version of the paper document is recorded, intermediate versions and necessary data recorded on the media are delivered to the user via the PC display screen.
- Interactive (dialogue) task solving mode with a wide range of user capabilities.
- Collective production of a document based on a group of computers linked utilizing communication.
- Adaptive processing of the form and modes of presentation of information in the problem-solving process.
Types of Information Technology
The main types of information technology include the following.
- Information technology for data processing design to solve well-structured problems, the solution algorithms of which are well known and for which there is all the necessary input data.
- This technology is applied to low-skilled personnel’s performance to automate some routine and constantly repeated administrative work operations.
- The technology management information intends for all employees of enterprises’ information service related to accepting administrative decisions.
- In this case, the data usually present in regular or special management reports and contains information about the company’s past, present, and possible future.
- It automated office design to complement the existing communication system of the company staff. Office automation assumes the organization and support of communication processes both within the company and with the external environment based on computer networks and other modern means of transferring and working with information.
- Information technology for decision support design to develop a management decision resulting from an iterative process involving a decision support system (a computer link and the object of management) and a person (the management link, who sets input data and evaluates the result).
- The information technology of expert systems is based on the use of artificial intelligence.
- Expert systems also allow managers to receive expert advice on any problem that knowledge has accumulated in these systems.
Concepts of Information Technology
- Information technology refers to telecommunications equipment and computers (computers) to transmit, process, and store data. The notion encompasses issues specific to computing, electronics and telecommunications.
- Importantly, the impression of information technology emerged in the mid- 20th century. However, the human already storing, processes and transmitted information several millennia before Christ. These processes, of course, were very different from the present ones.
- Throughout history, the essential to store and propagate information has become increasingly important, and today they are basic subjects for the growth of human life. Many of the early days of computing limits have been overcome, such as device sizes, processing speed, and memory volatility (early storage media could not retain data once interrupted).
- Electricity supply and RAM), but there are still many pending challenges. The Internet’s stability is one of the main ones, without neglecting the abysmal differences between suppliers from developed countries compared to underdeveloped ones.
What is the Scope of Information Technology?
The field of information technology is very broad. Covers areas like:
- Support, administration and design of telecommunications and computer systems
- Software developers
- And also, IT and network control
- You can learn these skills if you take a degree in those related to this field of technologies, such as Engineering in Computer Systems or since you will learn theory and technique.
What sectors or jobs does an Information Technology Professional Cover?
Almost all the jobs that an IT professional does is based primarily on four categories:
- Computer engineers
- Systems analysts
- And also, Computer programmers.
In this sense, an IT professional could apply in different business positions, such as:
- Responsible for the company’s IT systems
- Technological tools and processes manager
- Systems Manager: in charge of solving problems in the IT environment, such as server management and network control
- And also, developers in charge of testing and updating the program codes.
- An IT work can also create business applications, transaction systems such as real-time order chains, email servers and memory storage, hard disk, and flash drives.
The term information technology (IT) distinguishes between machines with limited scope and others with more general purposes.
It base on the study and development of information systems such as computer software and hardware applications. In simpler words, IT takes care of ensuring that computers work well for everyone else.
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