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What is Biotechnology? – Types, Applications, Uses, and More

What is Biotechnology? – Types, Applications, Uses, and More

What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary part that uses biology, chemistry, and various processes to use agriculture, pharmacy, food science, forestry science, and medicine. Probably the first to use this term was the Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky in 1919.

It includes basic and applied research that integrates different approaches derived from the technology and application of biological sciences, such as cellular, molecular, bioinformatics and applied marine microbiology.

The research and development of bioactive substances, functional foods for aquatic organisms’ well-being, cellular and molecular diagnosis.

And management of diseases associated with aquaculture, environmental toxicology and genomics, ecological management. And biosafety associated with the cultivation and processing of marine organisms and freshwater, biofuels, and administration and quality control in laboratories.

Types of Biotechnology


Biotechnology is a science that has many branches of study. Each of them deals with a specific field of application and is advantageous for some special conditions. Therefore, below we will exchange about the main types of existing biotechnology.

As well mentioned, biotechnology has many types, among which the following stand out:

1. Medical Biotechnology

  • Medical biotechnology uses use of living cells and other cellular elements to achieve improvements in people’s health.
  • Among the main uses applied in medical biotechnology, its use for the cure of some diseases, understanding human cell biology, among others, stand out.
  • It is used to create pharmaceutical products that contribute to the cure of some diseases or their treatment.
  • However, all this, before a study of cells, bacteria, among others. A vital example of this are vaccines, antibiotics, among other elements.

2. Agricultural Biotechnology

  • Agricultural biotechnology is used to improve crops and plants. In general, it focuses on the development and research of genetically modified plants.
  • To improve their characteristics, making them resistant to plants, the climate, pests, among others.
  • It contributes to the improvement of crops and the creation of sustainable agriculture, increasing yields and reducing polluting elements.

3. Industrial Biotechnology

  • Industrial biotechnology contributes to creating industrial elements and the replacement of others with less polluting ones.
  • It consists of producing new elements used at the industry level, such as alcohol and detergents.
  • Where in addition to replacing existing ones, they improve their application, making them environmentally friendly. Thus reducing its effects on environmental pollution.

Main Applications and Uses of Biotechnology


  1. Any biotechnology offers endless advantages in its application. And it is that they provide a solution to the broad environmental problems that we have and improve other processes.
  2. For example, it offers many advantages when used in medicine and the pharmaceutical industry since it provides a possible cure for some diseases and others’ study.
  3. Also, it makes other drugs more efficient, and consequently, their effect against the disease.
  4. Furthermore, when applied in industry, it dramatically reduces the polluting effects. Some techniques are even used, which contribute to the degradation of plastics and others, which provides a significant advantage in reducing the environmental pollution.
  5. On the other hand, biofuels are also elements that favour the reduction of environmental pollution.
  6. Without a doubt, it is an instrument that positively favours and has a favourable influence on the environment, creating solutions and measures that help control environmental pollution and reduce it in the best of cases.
  7. It should note that there is still much that is not known about the types of biotechnology, nor about this science itself. However, it is expected to offer excellent solutions.

Scope of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a type of science that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, as it is often used in various areas thanks to the many benefits.

That is why we can say that biotechnology is comprehensive, and this time we will know which areas are usually applied most and the benefits it provides in each of them.

Biotechnology is a science that is gaining more and more popularity. The truth is that it is no wonder since it provides various benefits and has many fields of application.

According to its field of application, biotechnology can be classified into six main areas: health, industrial, plant, environmental, animal and food.

That is why this time, we will learn more about its main areas of application and the importance it has in each of them:

Food Area

  • This technology plays a fundamental role; thanks to it, you can obtain much healthier foods rich in nutrients and medicinal properties.
  • Also, it allows producing a greater quantity of food and increasing its useful life, which reduces famine in the population; Since there is more food, the demand satisfy.

Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Biotechnology in the pharmaceutical industry consists of the production of natural, synthetic and even semi-synthetic antibiotics.
  • In addition to this, it allows obtaining insulin, vaccines and serums that help treat various diseases.


  • Another area of ​​the request for this technology is in the environment.
  • Because thanks to it, biodegradable materials can produce, wastewater purified, reduced and even eliminated, the different pollutants that may exist, and allow waste treatment.
  • But that’s not all, since it also tends to use in this area of ​​application with the sole objective of preserving the different species that exist in the world, something that is undoubtedly quite beneficial.

Importance of Biotechnology

Biotechnology plays a significant role in agriculture; through it, many benefits can achieve in various research avenues. Among these benefits, we can mention the following:

  • Obtain plants and crops that are more resistant to insects, pests and even diseases.
  • Herbicide tolerance.
  • It allows us to have healthier crops with high nutritional value and medicinal properties.
  • It is obtaining crops that are tolerant of certain metals in the soil, such as aluminium.
  • Develop and obtain genetically modified or transgenic crops.
  • As could well note, biotechnology is vast since it is usually used in various areas of study; this mainly to the many benefits that it provides in each of them.
  • That is why its use has rapidly expanded throughout the world.


Biotechnology uses technologies in living organisms to elaborate and improve certain products such as food and medicines.

Biotechnology applies in different sectors to optimize products’ performance and mainly in ​​pharmacology, agriculture and the environment.

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